**The dat Ontology **

Note: The ontology and its URI is no longer maintained. It has been archived at http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/dat for reference purposes. (2017/03/28)

  • Authors: Andrea Wei-Ching Huang, Chung-Hsi Hung, and Wan-Jung Shu, Keh-Jiann Chen, Tyng-Ruey Chuang, Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
  • Contributors: Sheng Ting, Academia Sinica Digital Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

**Introduction:**

This document describes a beta ontology for publishing a collection in the Union Catalog of Digital Archives Taiwan as Linked Open Data. A Digital Archives Thesaurus (dat) is being designed for catalogs of the Chinese Artifacts. Examples demonstrated in this linked open data prototype are drawn from 25 digital objects in five sub-catalogs, namely jade/stone artifacts , ceramic artifacts , metal artifacts , enamelware and glass artifacts, and bamboo/wood lacquerware.

**Status:**

12 classes and 20 properties are currently defined in this ontology. 12 properties reuse common vocabularies from DCMI Metadata Terms, Schema.org, and Simple Knowledge Organization System. In particular, we use the Relations for Reusing Ontology (R4R ontology) for data reusing purposes. The dat ontology consists two parts, namely the core ontology and the curation ontology.

  • The core of the dat ontology describes the domain knowledge of the collection in the archive (in this initial phase that is the Chinese Artifacts). For representing semantic relationship between the Chinese Artifacts and their associated knowledge concepts, 11 properties (i.e. dat:artifactType; dat:ceramicCharacteristics; dat:componentForm; dat:describedSubject; dat:decorationSubject; dat:designElement; dat:style; dct:medium; dct:instructionalMethod; dct:created; schema:color ) are used in reference to concept nodes in the Digital Archives Thesaurus (the current dat thesaurus consists more than 4500 terms, and in this prototype we use 167 concepts to represent 25 Chinese artifacts) or the equivalences of the concept nodes in the Art & Architecture Thesaurus (aat).
  • The curation ontology is designed to represent data preservation, classification, publication and reusing semantically. Concepts like dataset, provenance, license, reusing are described for curation purposes.

In this version, we remove many properties’ restrictions on domain and range mechanisms for possible reusing. For instance, the other 16 topic subjects may reuse some of properties even though the core 11 properties are now only employed for the Chinese Artifact. However, if the property is only designed for specific description, we keep the domain and range for its usage (e.g. dat:artifactType and dat:ceramicCharacteristics are only for Artifact descriptions.)



These features may be extended with more features for further collection employments (e.g. 16 other topic subjects in the Union Catalog of Digital Archives Taiwan: Anthropology, Archaeology, Archeology, Archives, Biology, Chinese Paintings & Calligraphy, Full Text of Rare Chinese Books, Geology, Language, Map & Remote Sensing, Multimedia, News, Rare & Manuscript Collections, Research Reusing, Resource Integration for Applications, Stone Rubbing). Overview: Note: Although concepts between dat and aat are highly related, the mapping tasks are not yet completed. Currently, concepts of Chinese Artifacts are directly represented by AAT concepts if they are skos:narrower related, or using dat representation. The implementation of the prototype using skos:narrower; skos:broader, and skos:related to represent their semantic relationships in this prototype is not yet ready for triple generations.

**Namespace**

The dat Ontology IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology/

CLASS

  1. dat:Artifact
  2. dat:Concept
  3. dat:License
  4. dat:Tag
  5. dat:ObjectName
  6. dat:Provenance
  7. dat:UnionCatalog
  8. dat:Source
  9. dcat:Dataset
  10. aat:Concept
  11. skos:Concept
  12. r4r:RRObject

PROPERTY

  1. dat:artifactType
  2. dat:ceramicCharacteristics
  3. dat:describedSubject
  4. dat:decorationSubject
  5. dat:designElement
  6. dat:hasTag
  7. dat:componentForm
  8. dat:style
  9. dct:medium
  10. dct:instructionalMethod
  11. dct:created
  12. dct:title
  13. schema:color
  14. schema:url
  15. r4r:isPartOf
  16. r4r:hasProvenance
  17. r4r:hasLicense
  18. skos:narrower
  19. skos:broader
  20. skos:related

Class

Artifact

IRI:http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#Artifact

Labels: dat:Artifact [器物]

Definition: In this prototype, the class is for items archived in the catalog of the Chinese Artifacts. It is the core object of the current model. However, it can be used in other archives which have similar purposes. Super-classes: dat:UnionCatalog

Property: dat:artifactType; dat:ceramicCharacteristics; dat:componentForm; dat:decorationSubject; dat:describedSubject; dat:designElement; dat:style; dct:created; dct:instructionalMethod; dct:medium; dct:title; r4r:hasProvenance; r4r:isPartOf; rdfs:subClassOf; schema:color; schema:url

See Also: Union Catalog

Concept

IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#Concept

Labels: dat:Concept [概念 (數位典藏索引典)]

Definition: The super class of the Digital Archives Thesaurus nodes with the type of concept. Super-classes: skos:Concept

Property: dat:hasTag; skos:narrower; skos:broader; skos:related

License

IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#License

Labels:dat:License [授權]

Tag

IRI:http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#Tag

Labels: dat:Tag [標籤]

Definition: Keywords or terms which are extracted from the metadata of the archive collection by Chinese Knowledge and Information Processing (CKIP)/Chinese Word Segmentation System, and have been assigned and mapped to the concept nodes of the Digital Archives Thesaurus. For interoperability purposes, we adopt the value of dat:Tag that is relating to AAT as values in AAT Terms.

ObjectName

IRI:http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#ObjectName

Labels: dat:ObjectName [物件名稱]

Definition: The name of the core object of the current model that is the name or the title of the dat:Artifact. It can be used to describe in the same way for other implementations.

Provenance

IRI:http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#Provenance

Labels:dat:Provenance [後設資料溯源]

Definition: The current metadata of the Union Catalog of Digital Archives Taiwan is not ready to release. For the current provenance of each object, we adopt the concept of the prv:DataCreation as “the execution of an activity by which data items have been created.” , and represent its semantics by including the metadata auto generated by d2R. The prv:DataCreation is sub-class of prov:Activity. For a more flexible use, we also recommend the use of the r4r:Provenance.

Source

IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#Source

Labels: dat:Source [源點]

Definition: In this prototype, it refers to the original URL of the dat:Artifact from the union catalog of the Chinese Artifacts. However, it can be used in other systems that wish to describe the similar concept or the original source that derives the current digital object.

UnionCatalog

IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#UnionCatalog

Labels: dat:UnionCatalog [聯合目錄]

Definition: Collections of catalogs in Digital Archives Taiwan.

dcat:Dataset

IRI:http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#Dataset

Labels:dcat:Dataset [資料集]

Super-classes: r4r:RRObject

aat:Concept

IRI: http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/

Labels: aat:Concept ; [AAT概念]

Super-classes: skos:Concept

skos:Concept

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept

Labels: skos:Concept [SKOS概念]

Sub-classes: aat:Concept; dat:Concept

r4r:RRObject

IRI: http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r/rrobject

Labels: r4r:RRObject [再次使用相關物件]

Property

artifactType

IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#artifactType

Labels: dat:artifactType [器物類型]

Definition: The property relates the digital object with the concept describing the type and the form of the physical object which are made or created.

  • Has domain: dat:Artifact
  • Has range: dat:Concept or aat:Concept

ceramicCharacteristics

IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#ceramicCharacteristics

Labels: dat:ceramicCharacteristics [陶瓷性狀描述]

Definition: The property relates the digital object with the concept describing the special types and characteristics of the pottery and porcelain.

  • Has domain: dat:Artifact
  • Has range: dat:Concept or aat:Concept

componentForm

IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#componentForm

Labels: dat:componentForm [(器物)局部形制]

Definition: The property relates the digital object with the concept describing parts or components of the physical object which are made or created under some conditional limitations.

describedSubject

IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#describedSubject

Labels: dat:describedSubject [(物件或裝飾)描繪對象]

Definition: The property relates the digital object with the concept describing the subject used for decoration purposes of the physical object.

decorationSubject

IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#decorationSubject

Labels: dat:decorationSubject; [(器物)裝飾主題]

Definition: This property relates the digital object with the concept describing subjects used for decoration purposes.

designElement

IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#designElement

Labels: dat:designElement; [設計元素]

Definition: This property relates the digital object with the concept describing elements used for design purposes.

hasTag

IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#hasTag

Labels: dat:hasTag; [具有標籤]

Definition: This relation describes that the concept node is composed by tags which are generated by the collection content, filtered by experts and may be mapped to the AAT concept. For interoperability purposes, we adopt the value of dat:Tag that is relating to AAT as values in AAT Terms.

  • Has domain: dat:Concept
  • Has range: dat:Tag

style

IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#style

Labels: dat:style [(器物)風格]

Definition: This property relates the digital object with the concept describing the style of the creation.

dct:medium

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/medium Labels: dct:medium [使用材料]

Definition: This property relates the digital object with the concept describing the material used for making the physical object.

dct:instructionalMethod

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/instructionalMethod

Labels: dct:instructionalMethod [使用技術]

Definition: This property relates the digital object with the concept describing the method used for making the physical object.

dct:created

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/created

Labels: dct:created [創作時代]

Definition: This property relates the digital object with the concept describing the time of the creation of the physical object.

dct:title

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/title

Labels: dct:title; [標題]

Definition: This property relates the digital object with the concept describing the time of the creation of the physical object.

  • Has range: dat:ObjectName

schema:color

IRI: http://schema.org/color

Labels: schema:color [色彩描述]

Definition: The property relates the digital object with the concept describing the name of the color, lightness or darkness, and sometimes may include the feeling of the color like the warmth and coolness of the color used.

schema:url

IRI: http://schema.org/url

Label: schema:url

  • Has range: dat:Source

r4r:isPartOf

IRI: http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r/isPartof

Label: r4r:isPartOf ; [為其一部分]

Definition: The property used here is to relate the digital object for reusing purpose. It describes the partial relationship between the digital object and its dataset while at the same time further constraints their temporal and spatial relations.

r4r:hasProvenance

IRI: http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r/hasProvenance

Labels: r4r:hasProvenance [具有後設資料溯源資訊]

Definition: The property used here is to relate the digital object for reusing purpose. It describes the digital object has metadata. For current practice, the original metadata of the object is not ready to release. However, the basic provenance information that is auto generated by the d2R tool for publishing semantic links of the object can be described.

r4r:hasLicense

IRI: http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r/hasLicense

Labels: r4r:hasLicense; [具有授權]

skos:broader

skos:narrower

skos:related

Examples:

Example 1: a Chinese bottle

The core of the dat ontology describes a Chinese bottle for its artifact types, several component forms and design elements as follow:

@prefix aat:     <http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/> .
@prefix dat:     <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#> .
@prefix dcat:    <http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#> .
@prefix dct:     <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix foaf:    <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix prov:    http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix prv:     <http://purl.org/net/provenance/ns#> .
@prefix r4r:     <http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r/> .
@prefix rdf:     <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdfs:    <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix schema:  <http://schema.org/> .
@prefix void:    <http://rdfs.org/ns/void#> .

<http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/resource/Artifact/3345302>
rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/data/Artifact/3345302> ;
dat:artifactType <http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300010898> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800003040> , <http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300311497> ;
dat:componentForm <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800000894> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001232> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001300> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001099> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800000918> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001212> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001165> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001285> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001237> ;
dat:designElement <http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300253899> ,         <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800000697> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800000813> .

Example 2: the curation

The curation part of the dat ontology describes the same Chinese bottle for its provenance, relation to the dataset, the time of its creation, and its source and possible reusing mechanism as follow:

<http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/resource/Artifact/3345302>
rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/data/Artifact/3345302> ;
r4r:hasProvenance <http://trdf.sourceforge.net/provenance/ns.html#DataCreation> ;
r4r:isPartOf <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/data/Dataset/10000001> ;
dct:created <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001988> ;
dct:instructionalMethod
<http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001785> ;
dct:title "明末清初 銅胎琺瑯獸面紋方鼎式爐" ;
schema:url <http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/item/00/33/0b/96.html> ;
foaf:page <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/page/Artifact/3345302> .

Example 3: r4r and the Chinese bottle


The semantic representation of this Chinese bottle is part of the 25 item dataset, and its associated publication like article, slides, and ontology code are ready for anyone to reuse. Therefore the dataset: 10000001 using the Relations for Reusing Ontology (R4R ontology)  is represented as follow:  
<http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/resource/Dataset/10000001>
rdfs:subClassOf <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/resource/R4R/10000001> .
<http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/resource/Article/10000001>
rdfs:subClassOf <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/resource/R4R/10000001> .
<http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/resource/R4R/10000001>
      a       r4r:rrobject ;
rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/data/R4R/10000001> ;
rdfs:label "A Linked Data Prototype for the Union Catalog of Digital Archives Taiwan" ;
rdfs:superClassOf r4r:rrobject ;
r4r:hasLicense <http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/> ;
r4r:hasProvenance "Citation Information" , <http://trdf.sourceforge.net/provenance/ns.html#DataCreation> ;
r4r:hasTime "November 2014" ;
r4r:locateAt <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/data/R4R/10000001> ;
dct:description "R4R for articles, data and code for PNC 2014" ;
dct:publisher "Digital Archives Taiwan" ;
dct:title "A Linked Data Prototype for the Union Catalog" ;
schema:author "Keh-Jiann Chen, Tyng-Ruey Chuang, Andrea Wei-Ching Huang, Chung-Hsi Hung, and Wan-Jung Shu" ;
schema:event <http://www.pnclink.org/pnc2014/english/index.html> ;
dcat:theme "A Joint Publication for Reusing through R4R" ;
foaf:page <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/page/R4R/10000001> ;
<http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/#term_page>


 
dat Last modified: 2017/03/29 00:48